Background: There is no consensus whether patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) should be considered as a patient with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, or as a patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and treated with narrow-spectrum antibiotics. HCAP research has focused mostly on the predictive value for non-susceptibility to broad-spectrum antibiotics and multi-drug resistant pathogens, in settings with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether HCAP criteria predicts non-susceptibility to different empirical strategies, including narrow-spectrum antibiotics in the Dutch setting.
Methods: In a post hoc analysis of patients with moderate-severe CAP in seven Dutch hospitals, we compared in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of definite and possible causative pathogens of CAP and HCAP to amoxicillin and broader antibiotic regimens. In a sensitivity analysis, pathogens with missing susceptibilities were assumed susceptible (best-case scenario) or non-susceptible (worst-case scenario).
Results: Among 2,283 patients with moderate-severe CAP, 23.1% (n = 527) were classified as HCAP. Non-susceptibility to amoxicillin ranged from 11.3% (95% CI 9.9-12.8%; best-case) to 14.4% (95% CI 12.8-16.1%; worst-case) in CAP patients and from 16.7% (95% CI 13.8-20.1%; best-case) to 19.7% (95% CI 16.6-23.3%; worst-case) in HCAP patients. The largest reduction in non-susceptibility was achieved by adding ciprofloxacin to amoxicillin treatment in both CAP patients (10% absolute risk reduction) and HCAP patients (11-16% reduction).
Conclusions: In the Netherlands, HCAP criteria predict higher amoxicillin non-susceptibility in patients hospitalized with moderate-severe CAP. Although broadening the antibiotic spectrum of empiric treatment reduced the likelihood of non-susceptibility, absolute reductions of non-susceptibility in HCAP patients were too low to justify the universal use of broad-spectrum empirical therapy.No abstract available