Background: The most recent modes for mechanical ventilation are closed-loop modes, which are able to automatically adjust certain respiratory settings. Although closed-loop modes have been investigated in various clinical trials, it is unclear to what extent these modes are actually used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine closed-loop ventilation practice on intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands, and to explore reasons for not applying closed-loop ventilation. Our hypothesis was that closed-loop ventilation is increasingly used.
Methods: A short survey was conducted among all non-paediatric ICUs in the Netherlands. Use of closed-loop modes was classified as frequently, occasionally or never, if respondents stated they had used these modes in the last week, in the last month/year, or never, respectively.
Results: The response rate of the survey was 82% (72 of 88). Respondents had access to a closed-loop ventilation mode in 58% of the ICUs (42 of 72). Of these ICUs, 43% (18 of 42) frequently applied a closed-loop ventilation mode, while 57% (24 of 42) never or occasionally used it. Reasons for not using these modes were lack of knowledge (40%), insufficient evidence reporting a beneficial effect (35%) and lack of confidence (25%).
Conclusion: This study does not support our hypothesis that closed-loop ventilation is increasingly used in the Dutch ICU setting. While industry continues to develop new closed-loop modes, implementation of these modes
in clinical practice seems to encounter difficulties. Various barriers could play a role, and these all need attention in future investigations.