This case report describes a female HIV-positive patient
diagnosed with pelvic actinomycosis using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Actinomycosis is notoriously difficult to diagnose by microbiological culture. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allows rapid definitive diagnosis of actinomycosis and is potentially of great value in a clinical setting. This is the first report of pelvic actinomycosis in an HIV-1 infected patient.