Viral infections have been associated with a wide spectrum of muscle disorders, ranging from acute nonspecific myalgia to myositis. However, severe rhabdomyolysis, with or without accompanying acute renal failure (ARF), has been described only rarely. We report the fourth case in the literature of recent Coxsackie B virus infection complicated by severe rhabdomyolysis and ARF, necessitating temporary haemodialysis in a previously healthy young man. Although most Coxsackie B virus infections are asymptomatic, one should be aware of this potentially life-threatening complication of this virus. As illustrated with the present case, serological testing may reveal the diagnosis in a case of rhabdomyolysis after a viral illness.