Background: Regulation of calcium is mediated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1.25-dihydroxyvitamine D3. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH release by a negative feedback system. Gain-of-function mutations in the CaSR gene reset the calcium-PTH axis, leading to hypocalcaemia.
Patients and methods: We analysed a family with hypocalcaemia. The proband was a 47-year-old man (index, patient I1), who presented with paraesthesias in both limbs. He has two sons (patient II1 a nd I I2). The probands' lab results showed: serum calcium of 1.95 mmol/l, albumin 41 g/l, phosphate 0.81 mmol/l and PTH 6.6 ng/l (normal 15-65 ng/l). Based on this analysis, we suspected a hereditary form of hypocalcaemia and performed genetic testing by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing of the coding regions and intron boundaries of the CaSR gene. Genetic analysis revealed a new heterozygous mutation: c.2195A>G, p.(Asn732Ser) in exon 7. The lab results of patient II1 showed: serum calcium of 1.93 mmol/l, phosphate 1.31 mmol/l, albumin 41 g/l, and PTH 24.3 ng/l. His genotype revealed the same activating mutation and, like his father, he also lost his scalp hair at an early adolescent age. Patient II2 is asymptomatic, and has neither biochemical abnormalities, nor the familial CaSR gene mutation. He still has all his scalp hair.
Conclusions: 1) The c.2195A>G, p.(Asn732Ser) mutation in exon 7 of the CaSR gene leads to hypocalcaemia, and has not been reported before in the medical literature. 2) Possibly, this mutation is linked to premature baldness.