The diagnosis of food allergy is established in cases where an immediate allergic reaction has occurred in the last year to a clearly identifiable allergenic food combined with sensitisation to this allergenic food. In all other cases, a food challenge test is required to establish or reject the diagnosis of food allergy. Although the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) test is considered the gold standard, false-positive and false-negative outcomes occur. The incidence of false-positive outcomes is unknown because the results of DBPCFC tests cannot be further confirmed by other tests. If possible, it is important to perform double-blind challenges with recipes that have been validated for blinding and to use challenge procedures that have been proven safe in clinical practice, in order to reduce the risk of unwanted false-positive and false-negative outcomes and severe challenge reactions. The national guideline of the Dutch Society of Allergology describes when challenges are indicated and contraindicated, how food challenges are best conducted and how patients could best be managed and followed-up after the challenge tests have been completed.